|AITHER & GAIA (Hyginus Preface)|
|THE ERINYES (Valerius Flaccus 1.796)|
Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
"As to Priamos (Priam) and his sons justice (dikê) came at last in crushing retribution (poina), so to Agamemnon's house came a twofold lion, twofold slaughter."
"And he [Orestes] has come whose part is the crafty vengeance (poina) of stealthy attack [on Aigisthos], and in the battle his hand was guided by her who is in very truth daughter of Zeus, breathing murderous wrath on her foes. We mortals aim true to the mark when we call her Dike (Justice)."
"[The Kassiterides islands near Spain] are inhabited by a people who wear black cloaks, go clad in tunics that reach to their feet, wear belts around their breasts, walk with canes, and resemble the goddesses Poinai (Poenae, Vengeances) in tragedies."
"From Aether (Air) and Terra (Earth) [were born] : Dolor (Pain), Dolus (Guile), Ira (Rage), Luctus (Lamentation), Mendacium (Lies), Jusjurandum (Oath), Ultio (Vengeance), Intemperantia (Intemperance), Altercatio (Altercation), Oblivio (Forgetfulness), Socordia (Sloth), Timor (Fear), Superbia (Pride), Incestum (Incest), Pugna (Combat)."
[N.B. Ultio is the Latin name for the Greek Poena.]
"[Aeson and Alkimede summon the Erinyes (Furies) to avenge themselves on King Pelias:] ‘Thou, O maid [Dike lady Justice], that dost report guilty deeds to Jove [Zeus], who lookest down upon earth with unerring eyes, ye avenging goddesses [Erinyes], thou Divine Law, and thou Poena (Retribution), aged mother of the Furiae [Erinyes], enter into the sinful palace of the king [Pelias], and bring upon him your fierce torches. Let accursed fear ravish his maddened heart; nor let him deem that my son alone will come with grim weapons in his bark [and take vengeance on the king].’"
"Orestes, his mind disordered by the Poenae (Vengeances) and blind fears, seizes a sword and slashes at this fierce mother's armed bands [his mother Klytemnaistra, who had conspired to slay Orestes' father]: 'tis himself the snakes are stinging, himself on whom the horrid-sounding lash is wreaking its ire, and once more in fancy he pursues the Laconian harlot [Klytemnestra], all hot to slay her; and wearily doth he return from the imagined slaughter of the goddesses, and fall upon the neck of his unhappy sister [Elektra]."
"The lord of Erebus [Haides], enthroned in the midst of the fortress of his dolorous realm, was demanding of his subjects the misdoings of their lives, pitying nought human but wroth against all the Manes (Shades). Around him stand the Furiae [Erinyes, Furies] and various Mortes [Thanatoi, Deaths] in order due, and savage Poena (Vengeance) thrusts forth her coils of jangling chains."
[N.B. Statius uses the Greek name Poena for the spirit of vengeance. The other personifications are Latin.]
- Aeschylus, Libation Bearers - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
- Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
- Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
- Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica - Latin Epic C1st A.D.
- Statius, Thebaid - Latin Epic C1st A.D.